**Introduction to Voltage Addition with OpAmps**

Operational amplifiers (OpAmps) are versatile components in electronic circuits, particularly adept at performing a variety of mathematical operations, including voltage addition. This experiment focuses on demonstrating the principle of adding an indefinite number of voltage sources using OpAmps, utilizing both inverting and non-inverting adder configurations.

**Objective**

The aim is to validate the operational principle of adding multiple voltage sources using OpAmps. Initially, we will construct a simple inverting adder circuit to combine two inputs. Subsequently, we will explore the design of a noninverting adder circuit, ensuring the avoidance of direct input connection to prevent short circuits.

**Materials and Setup**

- Red Pitaya or equivalent device for signal generation and oscilloscope functionality
- Resistors: 1 kOhm for the inverting adder, with a recommendation of 1 kOhm or 10 kOhm for the noninverting adder
- External voltage sources (optional) or utilize Red Pitaya's 3.3V, 5V, and -4V pins for simplicity

**Circuit Assembly**

**Inverting Adder Configuration:**Assemble the inverting adder circuit following the provided schematic, using the Red Pitayaâ€™s outputs for signal generation. Configure the input probe in 10x mode for both hardware and software settings.**Observation and Analysis:**With the oscilloscope, examine the output of the inverting adder circuit. The oscilloscope screencapture below showcases the circuit output, allowing for the analysis of the combined waveform characteristics.

**Conducting the Experiment**

**Voltage Addition:**Activate both output channels of the Red Pitaya, setting one to a sine wave and the other to a square wave. Observe the output (yellow trace) to determine if it represents an inverted sum of the two inputs.**Designing a Noninverting Adder:**For constructing a noninverting adder circuit, carefully introduce resistors between inputs to prevent short-circuiting, utilizing a noninverting amplifier configuration. The design should capitalize on the principle of superposition without adding an inverter to the output.

**Necessary Equations**

The inverting adder circuit output voltage (*Vout*) is determined by summing the inputs, each multiplied by their respective resistance ratios, and then inverting the sum. For an inverting adder with inputs *V*1,*V*2,...,*Vn* and equal resistances, the output voltage is:

For a noninverting adder, the output is a direct sum of the inputs adjusted by the resistance values used in the circuit, adhering to the superposition principle without inversion.

**Conclusion**

This experiment underscores the adaptability of OpAmps in constructing circuits capable of performing mathematical operations like voltage addition. By engaging with both inverting and noninverting adder configurations, participants gain practical insights into circuit design principles, the functionality of OpAmps, and the critical considerations in avoiding circuit faults such as short circuits. Through hands-on experimentation, the foundational concepts of electronic circuit design are reinforced, illustrating the importance of careful component selection and configuration in achieving desired operational outcomes.